Which Was A Recommendation Of The Council Of Trent Regarding Music For The Church?
Which of the following was NOT a suggestion made by the Council of Trent concerning the music that should be performed in churches? Make it easier to understand what is being said. In the original performance of Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass, female singers did not take on the highest vocal parts.
What did the Council of Trent recommend regarding music quizlet?
The Ordinary was the primary focus of most of the musical arrangements that Renaissance composers created for the Catholic Mass. At the Council of Trent, there were some cardinals who supported the idea of reverting to Gregorian chant and doing away with polyphony entirely.
What was the outcome from the Council of Trent music appreciation?
Pope Paul III (1534–1549) is generally regarded as the first pope of the Counter-Reformation. He is also credited with initiating the Council of Trent (1545–1563), which was a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform and charged with addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses.
- The fundamental organization of the Church during the Middle Ages, including its sacramental system, religious orders, and dogma, was preserved by the Council.
- It reaffirmed the core beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church while also rejecting any form of compromise with Protestants.
- Because “faith without works is dead,” as it says in the Epistle of St.
James, the Council defended salvation as being claimed by grace via faith and deeds of that faith (not only by faith, as the Protestants insisted), because “faith without works is dead” (2:22–26). As well as this, the doctrine of transubstantiation, which states that the consecrated bread and wine are believed to have been converted into the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ, was reaffirmed, as were the traditional seven sacraments of the Catholic Church.
Pilgrimages, the devotion of saints and relics, the use of venerable pictures and sculpture, and the worship of the Virgin Mary were all behaviors that aroused the ire of Protestant reformers; yet, these rituals have been forcefully reinforced as being acts that are spiritually desirable. The Council of Nicaea gave its formal approval to the Vulgate listing of the Old Testament Bible, which placed the deuterocanonical writings (commonly known as the Apocrypha by Protestants) on an equal footing with the 39 books that are traditionally found in the Masoretic Text.
This reiterated the prior decisions made by the Council of Rome and the Synods of Carthage, both of which took place in the fourth century AD. Those decisions had established the Deuterocanon as canonical Scripture. The Council also gave the order to write the Roman Catechism, which is regarded as the most authoritative source of Catholic doctrine today.
- Despite the fact that the historic principles of the Church were upheld, visible alterations were made to respond to objections that the Counter-Reformers were ready to implicitly concede were justified.
- The rising separation between the clerics and the laity was one of the situations that Catholic reformers sought to remedy.
After all, many members of the clergy in the rural parishes had been poorly educated. Frequently, these priests serving in remote areas were not familiar with Latin and did not have access to resources for adequate theological study (addressing the education of priests had been a fundamental focus of the humanist reformers in the past).
Better education in matters of theology and apologetics was to be provided for parish priests, while papal authorities sought to educate the faithful about the meaning, nature, and value of art and liturgy, particularly in monastic churches. Parish priests were to be educated in matters of theology and apologetics (Protestants had criticised them as “distracting”).
The use of notebooks and handbooks that detailed how to be an effective priest and confessor became increasingly widespread.
Which was not an objection of the Council of Trent to the music in the church service?
Which of the following is NOT one of the objections that the Council of Trent had to the music that was being performed in the church service? The singing of plainchant by young girls and younger youngsters.
What desire of the Council of Trent does the Pope Marcellus Mass reflect?
The heavenly sounds created by educated professionals would be more spiritually potent than the harsh song of an unskilled crowd, according to the Catholic Church, which is reflected in Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass. Palestrina wrote this mass.
Which composer realized the wishes of the Council of Trent?
It was referred to as the “Counter-Reformation,” and it was a movement within the Catholic Church that sought to reform in response to the Protestant Reformation. Around the middle of the sixteenth century was when the Council of Trent took place. Palestrina was a composer who worked in the church of St.
Which genre of vocal music was used in Renaissance church services quizlet?
The chanson and the madrigal were the two forms of secular music that were considered to be the most significant throughout the Renaissance.
What was one complaint the Council of Trent had about music?
What is one criticism that might be leveled against music according to the Council of Trent? The sacred words were being obscured by complicated polyphony.
What role did the Council of Trent play in the Catholic Reformation?
The Roman Catholic Church’s official response to the theological questions raised by the Protestant Reformation was the Council of Trent, which took place in 1545. It helped to revive the Roman Catholic Church in the face of Protestant growth by serving to clarify Catholic theology and make comprehensive decrees on self-reform.
What did the Counter-Reformation seek to reform about the music of the Church?
The overarching objective was for the music that was composed and played to contribute to efforts being made to reform the church, improve liturgical rites, and lead the congregation closer to piety. They came to the conclusion that being able to hear and comprehend the words was essential.
Why did most church fathers condemn instrumental music?
Why did the majority of early church fathers frown upon music performed by instruments? Because it lacks lyrics, instrumental music is unable to “open the mind to Christian teachings and inspire holy ideas.” Which early church father was so touched by singing the psalms that he feared for his soul as a result of listening to others sing them?
Who introduced music to the church?
Music in the Early Years of the Church During the early years of Christian worship, the churches were distributed over many nations in the Roman Empire. During this time, music played an important role in the worship services. Because of the utilization of the pre-existing musical traditions in these nations, there was a large amount of musical variation.
The devil and dance were both assumed to be connected with musical instruments, and as a result, churches did not permit the use of musical instruments since they were considered to be bad. Singing was the only kind of music that was permitted inside the churches. Bishop Ambrosius of Milan is credited for introducing the antiphon and encouraging the composition of new hymns around the 4th century.
Psalms were an essential component of the worship that took place in the early church. Psalms known as responsorial psalms were those that were sung by a single person (who was sometimes referred to as a “reader”), and the congregation would react at the conclusion of each verse with a simple phrase such as “Alleluia.” Antiphonal psalmody emerged throughout time as a distinct musical genre.
- This meant that the choir stood on opposite ends of the room, facing each other, and they sang alternate verses of the psalm (first one side has a turn, then the other).
- Even in modern times, antiphonal psalm singing may be heard being performed in Anglican cathedrals.
- Chant, also known as plainchant and more commonly referred to as “Gregorian chant,” was the kind of music that was performed and sung in Catholic churches (after St Gregory the Great, who was Pope from 590 – 604 ).
The text, also known as the words that were sung, consisted of the traditional liturgical language. Numerous composers were tasked with setting the texts of the Mass to music. The musical service honoring the deceased was known as the Requiem Mass. Additionally, there was music during the Vespers and the Compline services.
Before the 16th century, the only function for the organ was to provide accompaniment for singing. At the Renaissance period, many famous composers, such as Giovanni da Palestrina and Orlande de Lassus, contributed to the Catholic Church by writing polyphonic music during this time. They frequently composed motets, which are brief works that are based on passages that are not included in the liturgy.
During the time that is known as the Reformation, a number of Protestant groups severed their ties with the Catholic Church. Beginning around this period, musical styles associated with Catholicism and Protestantism began to diverge.
Which of the following was Pope Marcellus concerned about regarding the music performed in the Catholic church?
History reveals that the mass was written in 1555 as a tribute to Pope Marcellus II, who only held the papacy for a brief period in 1555. Recent scholarly research indicates that the year 1562, the year in which it was transcribed into a manuscript in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, is the most likely year that it was written.
- The third and final sessions of the Council of Trent were conducted in 1562 and 1563.
- During these sessions, the topic of whether or not the Catholic Church should utilize polyphonic music was debated.
- Concerns were raised about two issues: first, the use of music that was objectionable, such as secular songs provided with religious lyrics (contrafacta) or masses based on songs with lyrics about drinking or lovemaking; and second, the possibility that imitation in polyphonic music obscured the words of the mass, which interfered with the listener’s ability to devote themselves to the experience of the mass.
There was some discussion over whether or not polyphony should be completely forbidden in places of worship, and some of the supplementary papers written by attendees of the Council issued warnings about both of these potential issues. Nevertheless, polyphonic music is not mentioned in any of the formal proclamations issued by the Council, with the exception of an injunction against the utilization of music that is, in the words of the Council, “lascivious or impure.” Palestrina’s composition of this mass is said to have been inspired by the second of these points, the possibility that polyphony might have been outlawed by the Council due to the incomprehensibility of the words, according to a legend that began circulating in the late 16th century.
- Palestrina is credited with writing the mass.
- It was claimed that Cardinal Carlo Borromeo was persuaded, upon hearing Missa Papae Marcelli, that polyphony could be understandable and that music such as Palestrina’s was all too lovely to be banned from the Church due to its beauty.
- The style of the piece was straightforward and declamatory.
Composer Agostino Agazzari penned these words in 1607: “Music of the older kind is no longer in use, both because of the confusion and babel of the words, arising from the long and intricate imitations, and because it has no grace, for with all the voices singing, one hears neither period nor sense, these being interfered with and covered up by imitations.” (Music of the older kind is no longer in use because of the confusion and babel of the words because And for this reason, music would have been very close to being banned from the Holy Church by a sovereign pontiff, if not for Giovanni Palestrina founding the remedy, demonstrating that the fault and error lay not with the music itself, but rather with the composers, and composing the Mass known as Missa Papae Marcelli in confirmation of this — Quoted in Taruskin, Richard, and Weiss, Piero.
- Documents Illustrating the History of Music in the Western World Schirmer, 1984, p.141.
- This myth was perpetuated by Jesuit musicians of the 17th century, and it made its way into music history books well into the 19th century, when historian Giuseppe Baini wrote a biography of Palestrina in 1828 in which he portrayed Palestrina as the “savior of polyphony” from a council that wanted to eradicate it entirely: On Saturday, April 28th, 1565, at the house of Cardinal Vitellozzi, all of the singers who served in the papal chapel were summoned together in accordance with an order given by Cardinal Vitellozzi.
Cardinal Borromeo, along with the other six cardinals who were part of the papal committee, had already arrived at the location. Palestrina was also there, and the group sung a total of three masses, the most recent of which was the Mass for Pope Marcellus.
The third performance received the highest and most consistent applause, and due to the fact that it was so completely different from anything else that had been done before, it even surprised the actors and actresses who were doing it. Their Eminences showered the composer with compliments and encouraged him to continue writing in that style while also teaching it to his students.
— Richard Taruskin and Piero Weiss are the authors of the cited work. Documents Illustrating the History of Music in the Western World Schirmer, 1984, p.142. There is a record in the records of the papal chapel that verifies the occurrence of a gathering similar to the one recounted by Baini.
- However, there is no indication of whether or not the Missa Papae Marcelli was performed there or what the response of the audience was.
- This mythology survived until the 20th century; Hans Pfitzner’s opera Palestrina is based on this idea of the discussions that took place among the officials of the Tridentine.
There is no evidence to support either the view that the Council sought to banish polyphony entirely or the view that Palestrina’s mass was the deciding factor in changing their minds. Despite the fact that Palestrina sympathized with many of the Council’s decisions and, like Vincenzo Ruffo, deliberately composed in a simplified, easily understood style to please church officials, there is also no evidence to support the view that the Council sought to banish polyphony entirely.
Why did the Council of Trent want church music to return to Gregorian chant?
The Council of Trent wanted to regulate sacred music because they didn’t want the religious music to become diluted with secular style. With regard to polyphony, they had a view that was similar to Luther and Calvin’s, believing that the multiple voices butchered the sacred text, making it unintelligible. As a result, they wanted to regulate sacred music.
What were some of the criticisms about church music that were addressed during the Council of Trent?
Which of the following assertions about music during the Renaissance period is correct? The Renaissance was a time when secular music became more appreciated as an art form. Music from the Middle Ages was only available in the form of restricted manuscripts, but music from the Renaissance could be produced and distributed freely.
During the Renaissance period, the two regions that contributed the most to the advancement of musical styles and techniques were Which of the following phrases best describes the rhythm and melody that was common in music throughout the Renaissance? Each melodic line has its own rhythmic independence, and imitation of the primary melody is a typical tactic utilized by composers.
The beat is not very obvious since multiple melodies overlap with each other. The and the are the two primary types of music that were used in the holy context of the Renaissance. True or false: One of the most important composers of the Renaissance, Josquin Desprez devoted his whole career to producing sacred music for the church, such as motets and masses.
Which of the following assertions about the texture in Ave Maria.Virgo Serena by Josquin are true? It is mostly polyphonic, and there is imitation occurring between pairs of voices. There is imitation occurring between individual voices. During the time of the Council of Trent, there were many complaints voiced concerning the music that was being performed in churches.
The incorporation of secular melodies and dramatic singing into Catholic church music; the employment of loud instruments and complicated polyphony in Catholic church music; the fact that Catholic church music had lost its pristine quality. Take a listen to the sound bite.
- Which of the following is the most accurate description of this passage from the liturgy of Pope Marcellus? The voices are always trying to sound like each other.
- When the lyrics are reflected in the music.
- Which of the following assertions regarding the madrigal performed during the Renaissance may be considered accurate? The printing of music allowed for the publication of thousands of madrigals in Italy and, subsequently, in England; Luca Marenzio and Carlo Gesualdo in Italy and Thomas Weelkes in England were responsible for the composition of a large number of madrigals respectively.
The Triumphes of Oriana, compiled by Thomas Weelkes, is an anthology of what, exactly? Madrigals written in English in honor of “Oriana,” sometimes known as Queen Elizabeth I. Take a listen to the sound bite. Which of the following phrases best describes how the artistry of word painting was utilized in the performance that you are listening to? The phrase “together” is sung by all of the voices, and rapid rhythms are employed to convey the idea of “running.” A duo performs the song “two by two.” What name is given to the plucked string instrument that was used to accompany secular music during the Renaissance? Take a listen to the sound bite.
- The voice takes precedence throughout the majority of Flow My Tears; but, as can be heard in this snippet, the lute takes center stage throughout the song’s middle portion.
- Because it imitates the upward jumps made by the voice, the lute becomes more noticeable than it was before.
- What aspect of early Renaissance music was characterized by the dominance of instrumental music? It was reworked based on existing voice music.
Which of the following is seen in the image of Emperor Maximilian listening to music in his workshop? On the table in the middle-right corner of the photo is an early keyboard instrument. The harp can be seen in the lower center, near the front of the picture.
- The organ or regal can be found in the lower left corner of the picture.
- Take a listen to the sound bite.
- Which of the following statements most accurately describes the recording? It was composed by Pierre Francisque Caroubel; it is a quick dance in triple meter that is known as the galliard; it can be found in Terpsichore combined with a passamezzo; and it was first performed in 1789.
(1612). Which of the following statements best describes the shifts that occurred in the patronage of music throughout the Renaissance? Composers started to place their name on their works and began to demand to be reimbursed for their work; Virtuosic women singers started performing in a number of Italian courts, which led to a rise in patronage in the palaces of the aristocracy.
Which of the following best describes both the lyrics and the music that was popular throughout the Renaissance? The humanistic interest in language is visible in vocal music; it makes use of word painting to create poetic imagery; and it employs harmonies that assist communicate the feelings that the words are trying to convey.
What did Josquin Desprez do? Was a maestro of Renaissance music and traveled extensively, composing music for a variety of courts and churches along the way. Served in the Papal Choir in Rome throughout their time there. Take a listen to the sound bite.
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the music included on this recording? This is an imitation of polyphonic singing done in the style of the Latin prayer “Ave Maria.” It was claimed that Palestrina’s Mass for Pope Marcellus was responsible for what? The Council of Trent was persuaded by him to allow polyphonic compositions to remain in the church.
What was one of the most important developments that contributed to the widespread dissemination and acceptance of Renaissance secular music? The invention of the printing press and its subsequent evolution. Take a listen to the sound bite. What is it that defines the sound of the music played here? This is an example of an English madrigal, which is characterized by a polyphonic texture, the absence of instrumentation, and extensive use of word painting.
In what ways does the song Flow My Tears by John Dowland convey feelings of melancholy and sorrow? By composing in a minor key; by making use of a sluggish pace; and by having descending melodic lines reflect falling tears in the composition. During performances that took place during the Renaissance, the instruments of that era were generally utilized in the following ways: Because composers of the Renaissance did not specify which instruments should be used to play a work, performers were free to utilize any instruments were available at the time.
Wind, string, and percussion instruments were common among Renaissance artists’ arsenals. Ensembles of up to thirty performers were known to use mixed groupings of instruments of varying families, such as recorders and viols. Take a listen to the sound bite.
- Which of the following statements most accurately describes the recording? Caroubel is the composer of this passamezzo, which has a duple meter and does not make use of any percussion instruments.
- Which of the following statements best describes important elements that may be found in Josquin Desprez’s music? Martin Luther remarked that God has preached his Gospel through the music of Josquin Desprez; Josquin’s masses, motets, and secular vocal works influenced other composers.
Josquin’s music was praised by music lovers all over the world. Martin Luther said that God has preached his Gospel through the music of Josquin Desprez. What exactly are the phrases that are said during the Kyrie in the ordinary mass? Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison.
What makes the Pope Marcellus Mass acapella quizlet?
The Pope Marcellus Mass composed by Palestrina was most likely composed with a cappella performances in mind. The Gloria that Palestrina wrote for the Pope Marcellus Mass is a portion of the Proper, which is the section of the Mass celebration that varies from celebration to celebration. Which of the following constitute the various parts of the Ordinary of the Mass?
Why did the church frown on instruments quizlet?
Because of their history of usage in pagan rituals, the church frowned upon the use of instruments. In addition, the clergy had the opinion that the instruments occasionally diverted the attention of the congregation.
Who was the main patron of music during the Middle Ages?
During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church was considered to be the most significant patron of music.
Which of the following institution’s supported music in Renaissance society?
Which organizations within Renaissance society were responsible for supporting music? The Church, the city and state, and the aristocratic courts all had authority over the people.
Why does Renaissance music sound fuller than medieval music?
The answer, along with an explanation: Polyphony, which is the use of more than one melodic line by a single instrumentalist or singer, is one of the reasons why Renaissance music has a broader sound than medieval music. Medieval composers and performers did not use polyphony.
- Even if all of the melodic parts were performed at the same time, the composition may contain as many as four or even more, but they would all be harmonized.
- During the Renaissance, more instruments were utilized in music than they were during the Middle Ages, when these instruments were still in the process of developing.
Prior to the Renaissance, the majority of songs were performed solely by singers without any instruments, such as the Gregorian Chants. As a result of the invention of the printing press, Renaissance composers were able to speed up the process by which their works were disseminated, and they were also able to write music that could be played on a wider variety of instruments, including early versions of the violin, trombone, and guitar.