Who Wrote The First Music History Textbook In 1776?

Who Wrote The First Music History Textbook In 1776
Sir John Hawkins The very first music history textbook was written by Sir John Hawkins, who was also the book’s namesake. In 1776, he was the author of the book “General History of the Science and Practice of Music,” which was printed in five volumes.

What is the musical 1776 about?

This article discusses the musical that was performed on Broadway. See 1776 (film) for the movie version of the book.1776 (book) redirects here; this article is about the book written by David McCullough.1776 may refer to one of several different things depending on context.

1776
Original Production Logo
Music Sherman Edwards
Lyrics Sherman Edwards
Book Peter Stone
Productions 1969 Broadway 1972 Film 1997 Broadway revival 2022 Broadway revival
Awards Tony Award for Best Musical

The score and lyrics of the musical 1776 were written by Sherman Edwards, while Peter Stone was responsible for the book. The show is based on the events that occurred prior to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, and it tells the story of John Adams’ attempts to convince his colleagues to vote for American independence and to sign the document.

  • The show was inspired by the historical events that occurred before the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
  • The musical made its debut on Broadway in 1969 to positive reviews and ran for a total of 1,217 performances over its run.
  • This performance took home three Tony Awards, including the award for Best Musical.

In 1972, it was turned into a movie and released in theaters.1997 marked the beginning of the production’s second run on Broadway; another revival is planned for 2021.

When was music first composed in America?

The First Part of the American Music Timeline (AMT): 1620 to 1818 Musicologist Roger Lee Hall is responsible for compiling this list. The first section of the book focuses on the music that was written and published in the United States between the arrival of the Pilgrims and Puritans in the 17th century and the first performance of a large-scale oratorio by the Handel and Haydn Society.

  • Part One of the book is divided into two parts.
  • Part One is the first section.
  • The second section is a list of musical works that were written and performed in the United States between the years 1820 and 1920.
  • It is not a complete listing, nor does it attempt to be such, nor does it contain every musical event that has ever taken place.

There are just too many for all of them to be included. These articles are meant to highlight important historical events that occurred throughout these centuries as well as music that was created during those years. In addition, there are connections to pages pertaining to the American Music Preservation.

Regarding this survey, your thoughts and questions are very much appreciated. Please submit your comments to the American Music History Timeline. Simply follow the links provided below to view the entries for. Kindly contribute to the maintenance of this resource. Place your orders for musical goods at the CAMP Store.17th century [1600s] 1620 Pilgrims, also known as Separatists, arrive at Provincetown, Massachusetts, and form a colony in Plymouth, which is now in the state of Massachusetts.

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The Book of Psalms, which was written by Henry Ainsworth in 1612, is the source material for their singing. Old 100th, which is performed in response to Psalm 100, is one of the most well-known psalm songs ” (“Shout to Jehovah all the earth). In the year 1640, the first edition of “The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faitfully TRANSLATED into ENGLISH Metre,” commonly known as “The Bay Psalm Book,” was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  1. This version did not include music.
  2. This was the third magazine to appear in the American colonies under British rule.
  3. The following is an excerpt from the Old English Preface written by John Cotton: “That soe wee may sing in Sion the Lord’s songs of prayse according to his owne will.and bid us enter unto our lords’ ioye to sing eternall Halleluiahss.” Psalm 23 is one of the most well-known of all the psalms.

The original title of The Bay Psalm Book, which was published in 1698 as the ninth edition, was The Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs of the Old and New Testament: Faithfully Translated into English Meetre. This version was the first one to include music (13 tunes in two voice parts).

“Psalm 100” and “Low Dutch Tune” were two of the tunes that were played.18th century 1721 Reverend Thomas Walter from Roxbury, Massachusetts published “The Grounds and Rules of Musick Explained, or An Introduction to the Art of Singing By Note,” which was the first piece of music to be printed with barred notes.1726 Reverend John Tufts of Dedham, Massachusetts is credited with writing what is widely considered to be the first American melody.

It was included in the fifth edition of Tufts’ tune collection, which was titled An Introduction to the Singing of Psalm-Tunes. In total, there were 37 songs included in this collection, each with three vocal parts. “100 Psalm Music New” was the name of the tune that was credited to Reverend Tufts.

  1. The first collection of Pennsylvania German hymns was published in 1730 under the title Gottliche Liebes Und Lobes Gethoene.
  2. This collection was issued by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia.
  3. Conrad Beissel was the composer of these hymns, which were performed in the Ephrata Cloister (also known as Seventh Day Baptists).1737 Johann G.

Klemm (or Clemm) of Philadelphia constructed the first organ to be built in British North America. It was constructed for Trinity Church in New York City. The Ephrata Cloister, a Protestant monastic order located in Pennsylvania, published the first collection of choral music in the world in 1747 under the title Paradisches Wunder-Spiel.

  • The lyrics were printed, but there was blank space between them so that the music could be written in by hand.1759 “My Days Have Been So Wondrous Free” is the first song to be composed by an American who was born in the country.
  • Francis Hopkinson, who subsequently became a signer of the Declaration of Independence and served as a delegate in Philadelphia, was the one who came up with the lyrics for this song.

In addition to that, he was a contributor to the design of the first American flag. In 1761, an American musician named Urania assembled the first first music collection in the United States. A Hand-Picked Selection of Hymns, Anthems, and Psalm-Tunes Reverend James Lyon included some of his own compositions in the collection that he organized and edited.1762 Marks the beginning of the first musical club, which was given the name The St.

  1. Cecilia Society and was established in Charleston, South Carolina.
  2. It is unknown much about the history of this society; nevertheless, it is known that they were not a performing organization but rather a sponsoring group for concerts.
  3. Also in this year, the first known singing gatherings were conducted in Stoughton, Massachusetts.

These meetings, which were chronicled in a diary kept by Elijah Dunbar, eventually led to the creation of the Stoughton Musical Society.1768 The first song text to be used for propaganda was “The Liberty Song,” which was written by John Dickinson and put to the English melody “Heart of Oak” composed by William Boyce.1770 The New-England Psalm-Singer was published by William Billings (1746-1800), who was primarily a tanner in Boston but was also a singing teacher and composer.

This was the first collection of music written by an American composer who was born in the country.1771: “The Hill Tops: A Hunting Song” becomes the first song to ever be published in a journal. First published in April 1771 in the Boston, Massachusetts edition of the Royal American Magazine, Volume I.1774 William Billings ran a singing school in Stoughton, Massachusetts.

To the best of our knowledge, it is the only singing school from that time period that includes a complete roster of pupils. Jacob French, a future composer, was a student at the school and would go on to become a composer.1775 John Behrent of Philadelphia is credited with producing the very first pianoforte.1776 “Father and I Went Down to Camp” is credited to Edward Bangs, a student at Harvard College, and is said to be the oldest American verses written to the tune of “Yankee Doodle.” It was printed as a broadside and given credit to Edward Bangs.

  • There is no evidence to support the notion that Dr.
  • Richard Schukburgh, also spelled Schakburg, composed the original American words to “Yankee Doodle” in the year 1755 near Albany, New York.
  • However, this claim has been widely circulated.
  • It is not known who first composed the music known as “Yankee Doodle,” although it is thought to have been written in the United States sometime in the 1750s or 1760s.1778: William Billings composes the words and melody for the first native American to write a patriotic war song, Chester.

In the year 1770, Billings wrote the music for the first time, and in the year 1778, he wrote the first five stanzas. A new text was added in 1786, however it was not written by Billings. This new text was performed by the Old Stoughton Musical Society for a number of years.

It has been put into the log. In 1786, 25 male singers from the area were documented in a diary, which led to the formation of the Stoughton Musical Society. In contrast to what most people believe, neither Supply Belcher nor William Billings had any kind of active involvement in the process of establishing this musical club.

This organization has been around longer than any other choral society in the United States. The English melody “Heart of Oak” was used in the song “The Grand Constitution,” which was composed in 1787 and is about the United States Constitution. This song was sung in 1987 to celebrate the bicentennial of both the Constitution of the United States of America and the Constitution of the Stoughton Musical Society, which was drafted in October of 1787, only two weeks after the Constitution of the United States of America.

  1. At this point, no other musical organization in the United States can claim to have an older constitution than this one.1788 Francis Hopkinson’s Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano was the first piece of secular music to be printed by a composer who was born in the United States.
  2. In real honesty, there are eight songs, and each one pays tribute to George Washington in some way.1789 There were songs composed as a homage to George Washington’s inauguration as the First President of the United States.
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One of these songs, “Ode to the President of the United States,” had verses written by Samuel Low and was arranged to the music of the English hymn “God Save the King.”” 1790 Around this time, the Earliest Parish Church in Dorchester, Massachusetts, hosted the first documented singing competition in the United States.

It was between the male singers of the Stoughton Musical Society and the choir of the First Parish Church. The Stoughton ensemble triumphed in the competition by reciting Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus” from memory and without the use of any orchestral accompaniment, which was regarded as an outstanding performance for the era.

This well-known chorus was originally made available to readers in the United States in the year 1786.1791 The song “The Death Song of an Indian Chief” was the first symphonic score to be published in the United States. It was written by Hans Gram, a Danish immigrant who had settled in America.

This song was first presented to the public in the second volume of The Massachusetts Magazine (March 1791).1794 saw the publication of a number of significant tune collections. The Continental Harmony, written by William Billings, was one of them. Another one of them was called “The Harmony of Maine,” and it was written by Supply Belcher from Farmington, Maine.

Stoughton, which is located in Massachusetts, was Belcher’s hometown.1797 James Hewitt composed “The Battle of Trenton,” which was dedicated to George Washington and includes “Yankee Doodle” and “Washington’s March.” In 1798, “Anacreon in Heaven,” a famous English tavern melody, was used for the first time in a song called “Adams and Liberty,” which was dedicated to John Adams, the sixth President of the United States.

Joseph Hopkinson, the son of Francis Hopkinson, composed “Hail! Columbia” and set it to the melody of “The President’s March.” In 1798, the United States Marine Band was established as an official entity.1799 This year saw the composition of a number of memorial songs in honor of George Washington, such as “Funeral Dirge on the Death of General Washington” by Peter A.

con Hagen.1805, in the 19th century The Christian Harmony, also known as Songster’s Companion, was one of the first collections of American folk songs and was published in Exeter, New Hampshire. Jeremiah Ingalls was the compiler of this collection. After some time, Ingalls went to Newbury, Vermont, where he continued to compose additional religious music.

  • His music has continued to be well-liked by a variety of choirs, such as the Old Stoughton Musical Society, whose preferred Ingalls piece is NEW JERUSALEM.
  • Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” in 1814.
  • Its original title was “Defence of Fort McHenry,” and it was set to the melody of “Anacreon in Heaven.” The poem that was written by Key was first titled “The Defense of Fort McHenry,” and it was originally published on September 16, 1814, a short time after it was written.

The poem was initially published in many Baltimore newspapers. The Handel and Haydn Society was established in 1815 and held its inaugural concert in Boston on Christmas Day of that same year. It has now been recognized as the nation’s longest continuously operating performing arts company.

One of the first examples of a popular song is “There’s Nothing True But Heaven,” which was written in 1817 by Sir Thomas More and set to music by Oliver Shaw. On December 25, 1818, The Handel & Haydn Society in Boston gave the first complete performance of G.F. Handel’s oratorio Messiah (1742), as it had been published at the time.

The oratorio was written in 1742. It is still going strong today with yearly performances by H & H, which are typically staged in December. SOURCES: Harry Dichter & Elliott Shapiro. A Guide to the Early Sheet Music of the United States, 1768-1889 R.R. Bowker Co., with further printings by Dover Publications in 1969 and 1977.287 pages.

  • Both W. Thomas Marrocco and Harold Gleason contributed to this work.
  • An Anthology of American Music, 1620-1865, Including Selections Dating from the Arrival of the First Pilgrims to the End of the Civil War 1964 publication by W.W.
  • Norton & Co., Inc.; 371 pages.
  • Archive of Recordings from the American Music (AMRA) Click here to proceed to the next section of the timeline covering the history of American music (1822-1920).

Links to Further Resources Archive of Recorded Sound from the American Music (AMRC) The American Song History Survey (ASHS) and the Center for the Preservation of American Music (CAMP) A Survey of the Most Important Recordings Ever Made in the United States Preserving American Music Series (PAMS) Go back up to the top of this page.

What was the first musical about the American Revolution?

Arms and the Girl was a musical that was performed on Broadway in the year 1950. The music was composed by Morton Gould, the lyrics were written by Dorothy Fields, and the book was written by Herbert Fields, Dorothy Fields, and Rouben Mamoulian, who also directed the show. Arms and the Girl was about the Revolution.

What are the best books on the origin of music?

Books and chapter are examples of sources.

  • Abraham, Gerald
  • Hughes, Dom Anselm, eds (1960). The relationship between Ars Nova and the Renaissance, 1300–1540 A New Oxford Companion to the History of Music. Vol. III. ISBN: 978-0-19-316303-4 Published in Oxford by Oxford University Press.
  • Apel, Willi (1969). The music section of the Harvard Dictionary. Published in Cambridge by Harvard University Press with the ISBN number 978-0-674-37501-7.
  • Arnold, Alison, serving as editor (2000). The South Asian music section of The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The Indian Subcontinent. ISBN: 978-0-8240-4946-1, published by Garland Publishing Inc. in New York.

“Classification of Musical Instruments,” by Flora, Reis (published in the year 2000). South Asia and the Indian Subcontinent, pages 319–330 in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. (From Arnold’s (2000) work)

  • Birrell, Anne (1993), Popular music and ballads from the Han dynasty in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, doi: 10.2307/j.ctv9zcm2j, ISBN 978-0-8248-1548-6, JSTOR j.ctv9zcm2j,
  • Erica Brindley. Brindley (2012). The Relationship Between Music, Cosmology, and the Struggle for Harmony in Early China State University of New York Press, located in the city of New York. ISBN 978-1-4384-4315-7,
  • Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis is the author (2003). “Persian Myths”. The Wonderful World of Myths ISBN: 978-0-292-70607-1. Printed in Austin by the University of Texas Press.
  • Dewoskin, Kenneth J. (1982). The concept of art in early China is explored via the lens of music in “A Song for One or Two.” The University of Michigan’s Center for Chinese Studies is located in Ann Arbor. ISBN 978-0-89264-042-3,
  • During, Jean
  • Mirabdolbaghi, Zia, eds (1991a). The craft of music in the Persian tradition. Mage Publishers, located in Washington, DC. ISBN 978-0-934211-22-2,
  • Jean During, “Historical Survey,” During, Jean (1991a). Pages 31–56 of The Art of Persian Music. (In During & Mirabdolbaghi (1991a))
  • During, Jean
  • Mirabdolbaghi, Zia (1991b). The Musical Instruments of the Past and the Present”.99–152 are some of the pages included in The Art of Persian Music. (In During & Mirabdolbaghi (1991a))
  • Jean During, “Poetry and Music,” During, Jean (1991b). Page numbers 153–166 in The Art of Persian Music. (In During & Mirabdolbaghi (1991a))
  • Ellerbrock, Uwe (2021). The Parthians are often referred to as “The Forgotten Empire.” Taylor & Francis is located in Abingdon-on-Thames. ISBN 978-1-000-35848-3,
  • Farhat, Hormoz (2004). The Dastgah Concept, which may be Found in Persian Music ISBN: 978-0-521-54206-7 Published by Cambridge University Press in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Fassler, Margot (2014). Frisch, Walter (ed.). Music in the Western World During the Middle Ages A History of Western Music in Its Cultural Context, by Norton (1st ed.).W.W. Norton & Company, located in New York City. ISBN 978-0-393-92915-7,
  • Edited by Shona Grimbl (2000). The Ancient World’s Most Comprehensive Reference Source Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, located in the city of Chicago. ISBN 978-1-57958-281-4,
  • The name Grout is Donald Jay (1973). An Overview of the History of Western Music W.W. Norton & Company published in New York under the ISBN number 978-0-393-09416-9.
  • Richard, you’re Hoppin’ (1978). Medieval Music, The Norton Companion to the History of Music and Sound (1st ed.).W.W. Norton & Company, located in New York City. ISBN 978-0-393-09090-1,
  • Lawergren, Bo (2019). “Music”. In Dien, Albert E.
  • Knapp, Keith N. (eds.). The Cambridge History of China, Volume II: The Six Dynasties, 220–589 [also known as The Cambridge History of China] 698–720 pages published by Cambridge University Press in Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-107-02077-1,
  • The name Leach is Elizabeth Eva (2014). Guillaume de Machaut: Secretary, Poet, Musician, Cornell University Press is located in Ithaca, New York. ISBN 978-1-5017-0486-4,
  • Lucas, Ann E. (2019). A New History of Persian Musical Traditions, Entitled “Music of a Thousand Years,” is Presented Here. The University of California Press, located in Berkeley. ISBN 978-0-520-97203-2, JSTOR j.ctv1f884pp,
  • Penelope Murray. Murray (2020). “A Mythological Perspective on the Muses.” In Lynch, Tosca A.C.
  • Rocconi, Eleonora (eds.). A Companion to the Music of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Companions to the Blackwell Series on the Ancient World. Hoboken: Wiley, ISBN 978-1-119-27547-3,
  • The name Thomas J. Mathiesen (1999). The book “Apollo’s Lyre: Greek Music and Music Theory in Ancient and Medieval Times” is about the history of music in Greece. Published by the University of Nebraska Press in Lincoln with the ISBN number 978-0-8032-3079-8.
  • Mellas, Andrew (2020). Compunction and Hymnody: A Study of the Liturgy and Emotions in Byzantine Culture Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, has a DOI number of 10.1017/9781108767361 and an ISBN number of 978-1-108-76736-1. The S2CID for this publication is 225623021.
  • Mithen, Steven (2005). The origins of music, language, the mind, and the body are discussed in “The Singing Neanderthals.” Orion Publishing Group, located in London. ISBN 978-1-7802-2258-5,
  • Iain Morley, the (2013). The Prehistory of Music: Human Evolution, Archaeology, and the Origins of Musicality is the title of a book on the history of music before humans. The Oxford University Press is located in Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-923408-0,
  • Nettl, Bruno (1956). Music in Primitive Culture, ISBN: 978-0-674-59000-7 Published by Harvard University Press in Cambridge
  • location:
  • Peretz, Isabelle
  • Zatorre, Robert J., eds (2003). The study of music’s effect on the brain’s cognitive processes. ISBN: 978-0-19-852519-6. Published by Oxford University Press in Oxford.
  • Ian, the Cross (2003). “Music, Cognition, Culture, and the Development of Evolution.” The study of music’s effect on the brain’s cognitive processes. (In Peretz & Zatorre (2003, pp.42–56))
  • Huron, David (2003). “Has Music Adapted Through the Process of Evolution?” The study of music’s effect on the brain’s cognitive processes. (In Peretz & Zatorre (2003, pp.57–75)
  • Sandra Trehub (2003) published an article titled “Musical Predispositions in Infancy: An Update.” The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music is a chapter that can be found in Peretz and Zatorre’s 2003 book.
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So, Jenny F., ed (2000). The Art of Music During the Time of Confucius ISBN: 978-0-295-97953-3 Published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

  • Both of you, Jenny F. So and John S. Major (2000). “Music in China during the Late Bronze Age.” The Art of Music During the Time of Confucius (In So (2000, pp.13–34)
  • The name Robert Bagley (2000). “Percussion”. The Art of Music During the Time of Confucius (In Socrates’ (2000, pp.35–64)
  • Lawergren, Bo (2000). “Strings”. The Art of Music During the Time of Confucius (In So (2000, pp.65–86)
  • Guangsheng, Feng (2000). “Winds”. (From So (2000, pages 87–100)) Music during the time of Confucius.
  • Falkenhausen, Lothar von (2000). The Zheng Hou Yi Discoveries in the Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Music. The Art of Music During the Time of Confucius (Taken from So (2000), pages 101–113)
  • Names: Neil Sorrell and Ram Narayan (1980). A Guide to Performing Indian Music in-Depth: A Comprehensive Overview Manchester University Press, has an ISBN of 978-0-7190-0756-9. Located in Manchester.
  • Te Nijenhuis, Emmie (1974). The Development of Indian Music: Its History and Structure ISBN: 978-90-04-03978-0, published by Brill Publishers in Leiden.
  • Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). The music of Arab countries and peoples. Laurie Schwartz is the one who did the translating. Amadeus Press is located in Portland. ISBN 978-0-931340-88-8,
  • Randel, Don Michael, ed (2003). The music section of the Harvard Dictionary (4th ed.). ISBN: 978-0674011632 and published by Harvard University Press in Cambridge.
  • Reese, Gustave (1959). The Renaissance was a golden age for music (revised ed.).W.W. Norton & Company published in New York under the ISBN number 978-0-393-09530-2.
  • Rowell, Lewis (2015). The Origins of Music and Musical Thought in Ancient India ISBN: 978-0-226-73034-9. Published by the University of Chicago Press in Chicago.
  • Stolba, Marie (1990). An Overview of the History of the Development of Western Music ISBN number 978-0-697-00182-5, published by W.C. Brown Co. in Dubuque.
  • Strohm, Reinhard (2005). The Beginnings of the Golden Age of European Music, 1380–1500 ISBN number 978-0-521-61934-9, published by Cambridge University Press in Cambridge.
  • Strohm, Reinhard (2018). Research on the Worldwide Development of Music as Part of the Balzan Musicology Project Taylor & Francis is located in Abingdon-on-Thames. ISBN 978-1-138-05883-5,
  • Alison McQueen Tokita and David W. Hughes are the editors of the 2016 publication. The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music is a reference book about Japanese music. Series on Musicology at the SOAS. Ashgate Publishing, Milton Park, California, ISBN: 978-0-7546-5699-9.

Nelson, Steven G. (2016), “Court and Religious Music (1): The History of Gagaku and Shamy” The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music is a reference book about Japanese music. (Excerpted from Tokita and Hughes (2016), pages 35–48)

  • Pinker, Steven (1997). The inner workings of the mind W.W. Norton & Company published in New York under the ISBN number 978-0-393-04535-2.
  • Wallin, Nils
  • Merker, Bjorn
  • and Brown, Steven served as editors for this volume (2000). The Beginnings of Musical Expression Cambridge: MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-73143-0,
  • Bickerton, Derek (2000). “Is There Anything That Biomusicology Can Learn from Studies of Language Evolution?” The Beginnings of Musical Expression (This is discussed in Wallin, Merker, and Brown’s (2000) book on pages 153–163)
  • “The “Musilanguage” Model of Music Evolution,” written by Steven Brown in the year 2000. The Beginnings of Music (Contained inside Wallin, Merker, and Brown’s (2000) publication, pages 153–163)
  • Kunej, Drago
  • Turk, Ivan (2000). “New Perspectives on the Beginnings of Music: Archeological and Musicological Analysis of a Middle Paleolithic Bone ‘Flute'” is the title of the paper that presents the findings of the research. The First Sounds Ever Recorded. (This is discussed in Wallin, Merker, and Brown’s (2000) book, on pages 235–268)
  • Wachsmann, Klaus P. (1971). Wachsmann, Klaus P. (ed.). Essays on the Relationship Between African Music and Its History Evanston: Northwestern University Press
  • doi: 10.21985/N2VH9V
  • ISBN 978-0-8101-0333-7
  • location: Evanston.
  • Wade, Bonnie C. (2005). The expression of culture via music is a vital part of the Japanese experience. ISBN: 978-0-19-514487-1 Published by Oxford University Press in New York City.
  • Yudkin, Jeremy (1989). Music in Medieval Europe (1st ed.). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, ISBN number 978-0-13-608192-0.

Articles from periodicals and encyclopedias Robert Anderson, Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco, and Virginia Danielson are the authors of the study (2001). “The Arab Republic of Egypt.” “Egypt.” The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press; the DOI number for this paper is 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.08621; the ISBN for this book is 978-1-56159-263-0.

  • Antcliffe, Herbert (October 1949). “The Importance of Music in Roman Culture.” Music & Letters, published by Oxford University Press, has the following page range: 337–344. The corresponding citation for this publication is: 10.1093/ml/XXX.4.337. JSTOR 730675.
  • R.B. Athavale published an article in 1964 titled “Ancient Sanskrit Drama and Music.” Publication of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute known as the Annals.45 (1-4), pages 19–28, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, JSTOR 41682440.
  • Stephen Blum authored the 2001 article “Central Asia.” The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.05284
  • ISBN: 978-1-56159-263-0
  • location: Oxford. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Mary Boyce published an article titled “The Parthian Gsn and Iranian Minstrel Tradition” in 1957. This publication is the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.89, parts one and two, Cambridge University Press, pages 10–45, doi: 10.1017/S0035869X0010735X, JSTOR 25201987, and S2CID 161761104.
  • To Charry and Eric: (March 1996). “An Historical Perspective on Plucked Lutes in West African Culture.” The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 49, Pages 3–37, DOI: 10.2307/842390, JSTOR: 842390.
  • Geoffrey Chew, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Thomas B. Payne, and David Fallows are the authors of the study (2001). “Song”, The Grove Online Music Library. The Oxford University Press is located in Oxford. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.50647, ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0, (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)

You, Geoffrey Chew (2001). “2. Antiquity”. Song, The Grove Online Music Library. Developed with the help of Thomas J. Mathiesen. (This is discussed in Chew et al. (2001))

  • “Some Sources on Music in Western Sudan from 1300-1700,” written by Veit Erlmann and published between 1973 and 1974. African Music, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 34–39, International Library of African Music, DOI: 10.21504/amj.v5i3.1656, JSTOR: 30249969.
  • Fernald, Helen E. (December 1926). The title of this exhibition is “Ancient Chinese Musical Instruments: As Depicted on Some of the Early Monuments in the Museum.” The Museum Journal, volume XVII, number four, pages 325–371.
  • Furniss, Ingrid (2009). “Unearthing China’s Informal Musicians: An Archaeological and Textual Study of the Shang to Tang Periods” (Uncovering China’s Street Musicians) A yearly publication dedicated to traditional music.41, pp.23–41, Cambridge University Press. JSTOR 25735477,
  • Farhat, Hormoz (2012). a PDF file titled “An Introduction to Persian Music.” The catalogue for the Festival of Oriental Music may be found here. The University of Durham is located in Durham.
  • Goldstein, Ian (31 March 2016). “The Role of Music in Cognition.” Doi: 10.1093/obo/9780199757824-0169 to obtain a copy of Oxford Bibliographies: Music, published by Oxford University Press in Oxford. (requires a paid membership to see)
  • Hagen, Edward H.
  • Hammerstein, Peter (1 September 2009). “Singing was likely present among Neanderthals and other early humans. Research on the primates, lions, hyenas, and wolves’ territorial calls in an effort to discover the biological origins of music “. Musicae Scientiae,13 (2): 291–320. doi: 10.1177/1029864909013002131, S2CID 39481097,
  • Harich-Schneider, Eta (1957–1958). “Rei,” which translates as “The Medieval Court Songs of Japan.” Monumenta Nipponica,13 (3/4): 183–222. doi: 10.2307/2383043, JSTOR 2383043,
  • Killin, Anton (14 February 2018). The article is titled “The Origins of Music: Evidence, Theory, and Prospects.” The DOI for this publication is 10.1177/2059204317751971 and the hdl number is 1885/162771. The S2CID number is 165905083.
  • Anne Draffkorn Kilmer’s article titled “The Cult Song With Music From Ancient Ugarit: Another Interpretation” was published in 1974. Revue d’Assyriologie et d’archéologie orientale, Presses Universitaires de France,68 (1): 69–82. JSTOR 3282429,
  • Kubik, Gerhard (2001). “Africa”, The Grove Online Music Library. Doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.00268. ISBN: 978-1-56159-263-0. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Bo Lawergren wrote an article titled “The Origin of Musical Instruments and Sounds” in the year 1988. Anthropos, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Bd.83 (H.1./3): 31–45. JSTOR 40461485,
  • “Parthian Empire,” by Bo Lawergren, published in 2001a. The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press, has a DOI number of 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.20973 and an ISBN number of 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Lawergren, Bo
  • Farhat, Hormoz
  • Blum, Stephen (2001). “Iran”, The Grove Online Music Library. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.13895. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Lawergren, Bo (2001). Iran is referred to as “I. Pre-Islamic.” The Grove Online Music Library. (In Lawergren, Farhat & Blum (2001))
  • “II. Classical traditions,” written by Hormoz Farhat in 2001 and published in Iran. The Grove Online Music Library. (In Lawergren, Farhat & Blum (2001)
  • “Music History i. Pre-Islamic Iran,” authored by Bo Lawergren and published in 2009 Encyclopaedia Iranica, Leiden: Brill Publishers,
  • Levitin, David J., and Alexios K. Tirovolas (2009). The title of this article is “Current Advances in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Music.” The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, volume 1156, number 1, pages 211–231. Bibcode: 2009NYASA1156.211L, doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04417.x, PMID 19338510, S2CID 2856561,
  • Kenneth Levy authored the 2001 article “Byzantine Chant.” The Grove Online Music Library. Christian Troelsgaard provided editorial changes. The Oxford University Press is located in Oxford. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.04494, ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0,
  • Malm, William P. (19 November 2019). The article “Chinese music | Characteristics, History, Instruments, Genres, and Facts | Britannica” is located on the website Britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, Illinois You may access the original document on June 2nd, 2021 here.
  • “V. Court music,” by Allan Marett, published in Japan in 2001. The Grove Online Music Library.
  • Merker, Bjorn
  • Morley, Iain
  • Zuidema, Willem (19 March 2015). There are five key limits that must be placed on any theory that attempts to explain where music came from. A publication of the Royal Society titled “Philosophical Transactions.” 370 (1664), with a DOI of 10.1098/rstb.2014.0095. eISSN 1471-2970, ISSN 0962-8436, PMC 4321136, and PMID 25646518. Royal Society.
  • Montagu, Jeremy (20 June 2017). “A Brief Overview of the Origin and Entire Development of Music, Beginning with Its Earliest Stages” “How Music and Instruments Began: A Brief Overview of the Origin and Entire Development of Music” Sociology’s Most Cutting-Edge Research 2 (8). doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2017.00008,
  • Moore, J. Kenneth (September 2009). “Chinese Art and Musical Traditions.” The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History may be found at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This page was retrieved on June 24th, 2021.
  • Nadel, Siegfried (October 1930). The translation was done by Theodore Baker. “The Beginnings of Musical Instruments.” This issue of The Musical Quarterly. Oxford University Press, volume 16, issue 4, pages 531–546. doi: 10.1093/mq/XVI.4.531, JSTOR 738618,
  • Bruno Nettl authored the 2001 piece titled “Music.” The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • the DOI number for this paper is 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.40476
  • the ISBN for this book is 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Encyclopaedia Iranica, “Iran xi. Music,” authored by Bruno Nettl and published in 2012 by Nettl. Leiden: Brill Publishers,
  • Planchart, Alejandro Enrique (2001). “Du Fay, Guillaume”, The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford University Press is referred to as Oxford. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.08268, ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0, (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Geekie, Gordon
  • Dick, Alastair
  • Sen, Devdan
  • Jairazbhoy, Nazir A.
  • Manuel, Peter
  • Simon, Robert
  • Palackal, Joseph J.
  • Brar, Soniya K.
  • Kelting, M. Whitney
  • Henry, Edward O.
  • Lord, Maria
  • Arnold, Alison
  • Pinckney, Warren
  • Vatsyayan, Kapila
  • “India, located on the subcontinent of” The Grove Online Music Library. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.43272. ISBN 978-1-56159-263-0. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
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The authors’ names are Powers, Harold S., and Katz, Jonathan (2020). “II. An overview of the history of classical music.” India, located on the subcontinent of. The Grove Online Music Library. (According to Qureshi et al (2020)

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, “African music | Robotham, Donald Keith, 8 April 2016,” entry, accessed on 8 April 2016. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Romanou, Katy
  • Mathiesen, Thomas J.
  • Lingas, Alexander
  • Maliaras, Nikos
  • Chaldaiakis, Achilleus
  • Plemmenos, John
  • Bamichas, Pyrros
  • Kardamis, Kostas
  • Kontossi, Sofia
  • Economides, Myrto
  • Tragaki, Dafni
  • Tsagkarakis, Ioannis
  • Chardas, Kostas
  • Seiragakis, Manolis
  • Chianis, Sotirios
  • Brandl, Rudolph M. (2019). Greece. “Greece.” The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • the DOI number for this publication is 10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.3000000167
  • the ISBN for this book is 9781561592630. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Rowell, Lewis (Autumn 1981). “Early Indian Musical Speculation and the Theory of Melody.” “Early Indian Musical Speculation.” Journal of Music Theory, published by Duke University Press, has the following page range: 217–244. doi: 10.2307/843650, JSTOR 843650,
  • “Musical bow,” by David K. Rycroft, published in 2001. The Grove Online Music Library. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.19417. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • “Biography,” by Maynard Solomon, published in 2001. The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • the DOI number for this paper is 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.41156
  • the ISBN for this book is 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Thrasher, Alan R.
  • Lam, Joseph S.C.
  • Stock, Jonathan P.J.
  • Mackerras, Colin
  • Rebollo-Sborgi, Francesca
  • Kouwenhoven, Frank
  • Schimmelpenninck, A.
  • Jones, Stephen
  • Han Mei
  • Wu Ben
  • Rees, Helen
  • Trebinjac, Sabine
  • Lee, Joanna C. (2001). “The People’s Republic of China.” “China.” The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • the DOI number for this paper is 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.43141
  • the ISBN for this book is 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Alan R. Thrasher, Ph.D. (2001). “I. Introduction: Historical, Geographical, and Analytical Perspectives” China, officially the People’s Republic of China. The Grove Online Music Library. (In Thrasher and others’ (2001)
  • The name Joseph S.C. Lam (2001a). “2. The period of antiquity known as the Warring States (ending in 221 BCE)”. China, officially the People’s Republic of China. (From Thrasher et al(2001),’s article in Grove Music Online)
  • The name Joseph S.C. Lam (2001b). “3. Dynasties from Qin to Tang (221 BCE–907 CE)”. China, officially the People’s Republic of China. (From Thrasher et al(2001),’s article in Grove Music Online)
  • The name Joseph S.C. Lam (2001c). “4. Song to Yuan dynasties (960–1368).”. China, officially the People’s Republic of China. (From Thrasher et al(2001),’s article in Grove Music Online)
  • The name Joseph S.C. Lam (2001d). “5. Ming through Qing dynasties (1368–1911).”. China, officially the People’s Republic of China. The Grove Online Music Library. (From Thrasher and colleagues’ (2001) article)
  • “Shang Musical Instruments: Part One,” written by Kin-Woon Tong and published in Asian Music in 1983a, volume 14, issue 2, pages 17–182.
  • Tong, Kin-Woon. “Shang Musical Instruments: Part Two.” Asian Music, Volume 15, Number 1 (January 1983), Pages 102–184. doi: 10.2307/833918. JSTOR 833918.
  • Touliatos-Banker, Diane (Spring 1984). College Music Symposium, volume 24, number one, pages 62–80, “Women Composers of Medieval Byzantine Chant.” [Abstract] JSTOR 40374217,
  • Touliatos, Diane (2001). “Byzantine secular music”, The Grove Online Music Library. doi: 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.48192. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Vansina, J., “The Bells of Kings,” The Journal of African History, Cambridge University Press, vol.10, no.2 (1996), pages 187–197, doi: 10.1017/S0021853700009464, JSTOR 179509, and S2CID 162156236.
  • Waele, Eric De, “Musicians and Musical Instruments on the Rock Reliefs at the Elamite Sanctuary of Kul-e Farah (Izeh),” 1989. “Musicians and Musical Instruments on the Rock Reliefs.” Iran, Taylor & Francis, volume 27, pages 29–38, DOI: 10.2307/4299814, JSTOR 4299814. Taylor & Francis.
  • Wolinski, Mary
  • Borders, James (26 February 2020). “Medieval Music”, Oxford Bibliographies: Music was published by Oxford University Press in Oxford, United Kingdom. The publication’s DOI is 10.1093/OBO/9780199757824-0269 and its ISBN number is 978-0-19-975782-4. (requires a paid membership to see)
  • Owen Wright, Christian Poché, and Amnon Shiloah are referred to here (2001). “Arab music”, The Grove Online Music Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • the DOI number for this paper is 10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.01139
  • the ISBN for this book is 978-1-56159-263-0. (requires a subscription or membership to a public library in the UK)
  • Wright, Owen (2001a). “2. The early period, which lasted up until 900 CE.” The Grove Online Music Library. (Excerpted from Wright, Poché, and Shiloah (2001))
  • Wright, Owen (2001b).3. The later Abbasids, from 900 to 1258 The Grove Online Music Library. (Excerpted from Wright, Poché, and Shiloah (2001))
  • “4. Mongols and Mamluks (1258–1517),” written by Owen Wright and published in 2001c. The Grove Online Music Library. (Excerpted from Wright, Poché, and Shiloah (2001))